• 2019 June 20 13:47

    DNV GL: Building a marine supply infrastructure as part of a future hydrogen society

    DNV GL customers in many industries are starting their decarbonization journey. Hydrogen has become one of the potential fuels for future transport needs. It is also seen as a solution in other industries’ decarbonization road maps. As a transport fuel, hydrogen has already become a solution for road transport, powering fuel cells in cars, buses and trucks, and will soon generate electricity in ships. Work is under way to overcome some of the key challenges facing hydrogen as a fuel. DNV GL is involved in various projects and studies that are looking at ways to support the development and resolve some of the safety, regulatory and technical issues, DNV GL said in its review.

    The potential of hydrogen as a clean fuel
    With the push for decarbonization, there is growing interest in hydrogen as an energy carrier, whether as a fuel for residential heating, as an industrial energy source or as a fuel for truck, rail and marine use.

    Gerd Petra Haugom, Principal Consultant, Environmental Advisory at DNV GL – Maritime, says that hydrogen as a fuel ticks many of the emission reduction boxes. “It is clean, producing no emissions except water vapour. However,” she points out, “more work is needed to ensure that its production is likewise clean and sustainable, and to build up a sustainable supply infrastructure.”

    At the 2017 Davos meeting of the World Economic Forum, leading industrial CEOs formed the Hydrogen Council. Its objective is to promote serious investments in the hydrogen economy. This includes promoting the commercialization and development of hydrogen for fuel cells in particular, and as a significant part of the future energy mix in general. The Hydrogen Council expects hydrogen to cover 18 per cent of energy demand by 2050, equivalent to six Gt of CO2 abatement annually.

    The Hydrogen Council and some governments, such as that of Norway, have committed to helping build a hydrogen supply infrastructure that will benefit road transport, industrial use, heating of homes and an integrated maritime supply chain. As a starting point, DNV GL assessed the status of the use of hydrogen in Norway. The final report for the Norwegian authorities provides a knowledge base for the development of a comprehensive strategy for research, technology development and use of hydrogen as an energy carrier in Norway. These efforts aim to prevent a chicken-and-egg scenario as seen with other alternative ship fuels.

    The hydrogen market
    There are very few liquefaction facilities at the moment. According to DNV GL’s report, about three per cent of world energy consumption is used to produce hydrogen, and more than 55 million tonnes of hydrogen are consumed annually, most of it by the chemical and petroleum industries. However, some hydrogen-fuel-cell-powered buses, trucks and trains are in use, and a supply chain is beginning to emerge for these vehicles. The increasing demand for hydrogen across industries for purposes such as heating and energy production is expected to boost hydrogen demand and might also contribute to the establishment of new hydrogen supply chains that increase the availability of both compressed and liquid hydrogen as a fuel.

    By 2020, smaller vessels using the same technology should begin operating within the scope of projects DNV GL is actively involved in. Eventually, larger ships will depend on hydrogen, and the gas will be produced in larger quantities from renewable energy and converted into fuels for commercial aviation and shipping.

    To expand the hydrogen production capacity and availability, substantial investments will be needed, says the Hydrogen Council in its 2017 report: an estimated 110 billion US dollars should be invested in hydrogen production, another 80 billion US dollars in storage, transport and distribution and about 70 billion US dollars in product development and the expansion of manufacturing capacities. The council also points out that an appropriate regulatory framework is needed, and that scaling up production could bring down costs.

    In its vision for the future, the Hydrogen Council estimates that a global hydrogen-powered fleet of 400 million cars, 15 to 20 million trucks and five million buses could be in operation by 2050, and that hydrogen could replace five per cent of the world’s aviation and shipping fuel by that year. In addition, ten per cent of global heat and power generation for households and the industrial sector might be covered by hydrogen.

    Apart from serving as a fuel for fuel cells, hydrogen is of great interest as a means to store surplus energy from renewable sources, such as offshore wind farms.

    A tricky substance to handle
    Since hydrogen is highly flammable and challenging to contain due to the very small molecules, there are potential safety and regulatory challenges connected with its widespread use. “It is important to be aware of the specific properties of hydrogen, which are different from the properties of other fuels,” says Gerd Petra Haugom.

    Furthermore, she continues, one of the key decisions regarding hydrogen as a fuel is the form in which it will be transported. “If you need to transport large volumes of hydrogen over some distance, it might – similarly to natural gas – make sense to use hydrogen pipelines, but for intermediate transport distances it can be more efficient to convert it into a cryogenic liquid at a temperature of –253 degrees, rather than transporting it as a compressed gas,” says Haugom.

    Liquefied hydrogen takes less space than compressed gas. However, the liquefaction process can consume around 30 per cent of the energy content of the gas, and maintaining the low temperature requires energy as well. Therefore liquefaction is most feasible for large quantities of hydrogen.

    Because of the challenges associated with hydrogen gas, converting it into a less hazardous and more convenient form is considered by many experts to be preferable to liquefaction. Conversion to ammonia, synthetic methane or a liquid organic hydrogen carrier (LOHC) such as cycloalkanes or formic acid is being studied.

    Starting small
    “All the emerging alternative fuels, such as LPG, LNG and biofuels, will need an infrastructure to be developed,” says Haugom. There are advantages and constraints associated with all alternative fuels. Due to the need both to build an infrastructure and to gain operational experience, Haugom believes hydrogen will initially be used mainly by smaller vessels and for vessels operating on fixed routes. As it is costly and potentially risky to be a first mover, the willingness to take such a step depends on the availability of funding sources to cover additional costs, or on government subsidies, as well as on the relative advantages of achieving compliance with stricter emission requirements in ports and heavily populated or environmentally sensitive areas.

    “It will be easy to start with ferries and other vessels which are on set routes where you will have limited infrastructure requirements,” says Haugom, pointing out that currently most of the hydrogen is produced from natural gas, which results in CO2 emissions, but that an increasing share of mix-in hydrogen from renewable sources is expected to become available.

    Assuming a growing demand for hydrogen, there will also be a need to develop hydrogen bunker vessels.

    “A vessel that has bunker tanks for liquid hydrogen needs a liquified hydrogen supply. On the other hand, a vessel that carries its hydrogen bunker as a compressed gas could be refuelled by a liquid hydrogen bunker vessel equipped with a regasification plant.”

    Making hydrogen bigger
    Experience gained in hydrogen-fuelled road transport will likely be instrumental in developing larger industrial applications and building up a supply infrastructure for future maritime use. Of all alternative fuels, batteries are most efficient, but their weight and capacity limit their practical use. Hydrogen-based fuel cells could potentially overcome these constraints.

    Haugom has worked on development projects for hydrogen-powered buses and public transport in Norway and Europe. “We still need to do risk assessments to make sure the risk levels are acceptable,” she says. The transfer technology for compressed hydrogen fuel has to be developed to ensure safe and fast bunkering since the volumes needed for ships are greater than for a truck or bus. She stresses: “To realize this potential, we need technology that can do this quickly and safely.”




2019 October 23

18:36 GTMaritime protects onboard cyber security in record numbers
18:02 Tokyo MOU accepted Panama as the 21st member authority
17:35 Rosmorrechflot suggests providing subsidies and privileges to ship owners using LNG
17:02 Teekay and Teekay LNG announce resolution to China LNG joint venture issues
16:52 Damen signs contract with Karachi Shipyard & Engineering Works for third ASD Tug 2009
16:43 Side event on Women in Fisheries held at Torremolinos Ministerial Conference
16:21 Average wholesale prices for М-100 HFO down to RUB 11,770 in RF spot market
16:02 Carnival Corporation, Royal Caribbean and Government of St. Lucia sign MoU
15:37 Yxney Maritime and Grieg Connect team up with the NOx Fund to build digital emissions infrastructure
15:02 Qatar Petroleum announces commencement of supply of Very Low Sulphur Fuel Oil at Ras Laffan Industrial City Port
14:56 Ships of RF Navy’s Caspian Flotilla participated in strategic command post exercise
14:14 Port of Zeebrugge posts results for Q3 2019
13:13 Abu Dhabi Ports breaks ground on new waterfront destination
12:40 Association of Legal Entities of “Trans-Caspian International Transport Route” project held General Meeting in Tbilisi
12:12 Aker Solutions targets growth in low carbon and renewable energy
11:48 Yaroslavsky Shipbuilding Plant delivered survey ship of Project 3330 built for Volga Basin
11:26 Technological infrastructure of Vostochny Port's Phase 3 highly appraised by Indian delegation
11:04 Mitsui E&S Shipbuilding deliveres a 66,000 dwt type bulk carrier to Tomaros Navigation, Liberia
10:32 ASCO held meeting with representatives of Australian and Chinese companies
10:09 The world’s largest offshore wind farm welcomes Jan De Nul’s Voltaire to the project
09:50 Russian Maritime Register of Shipping introduced a new edition of the Container Rules set
09:31 Baltic Dry Index is down to 1,806 points
09:15 Brent Crude futures price is down 0.49% to $59.41, Light Sweet Crude – down 0.83% to $54.03
09:08 CMA CGM implements Winter Surcharge on imports into St Petersburg, Ust-Luga & Bronka (Russia)
08:53 MABUX: Bunker market this morning, Oct 23
08:42 Europort 2019 launch led by shipowner summit

2019 October 22

18:09 Alfa Laval Aalborg boiler technology offers an easier path to LNG propulsion
17:53 NOVATEK issues update on Arc7 LNG tankers
17:30 Yxney Maritime and Grieg Connect team up with the NOx Fund to build digital emissions infrastructure
17:02 Total and Zhejiang Energy Group join forces to develop the growing low sulfur marine fuel market
16:48 North-Western Shipping Company carried 3.7 million tonnes of cargo in 9M’2019
16:25 Wärtsilä retrofit to reduce environmental impact of ferry operating in ecologically sensitive waters
16:02 McDermott International enters into agreement for up to $1.7 bln of new financing
15:41 Latest Damen FCS 3307 Patrol vessels for Homeland Integrated Offshore Services Limited arrive in Nigeria
15:27 Victor Chernomyrdin icebreaker successfully completed sea trials
15:02 Deltamarin signs design contracts with Merima
14:44 Pella shipyard started mooring trials for lead crab catching vessel of Project 03070
14:10 CMA CGM announces FAK rates from Asia to the Middle East Gulf
13:49 Patrol ship of RF Navy’s Black Sea Fleet left Greek port of Pylos
13:02 A.P. Møller - Mærsk A/S upgrades EBITDA expectation for 2019
12:50 Marine Recruiting Agency trained 1,344 specialists for port and construction segments in 9M’19, up 14% YoY
12:28 DP World reports 1.1% gross like-for-like volume growth in 3Q 2019
12:26 ESPO congratulates port of Barcelona, Vigo and Baku for getting EcoPorts’ environmental management standard
12:01 Cook Islands, Sao Tome and Principe accede to Cape Town Agreement, 46 declare support
11:45 MPSV12 project vessel "Bahtemir" took part in emergency response exercises in the Gulf of Finland
11:22 3rd “LNG Fleet and LNG Bunkering in Russia” conference kicks off in Moscow
11:13 Bio-based welding-gas production facility to open in the port of Amsterdam
10:44 CMA CGM announces PSS for cargo from Europe and the Mediterranean to Australia and New Zealand
10:20 BLRT Grupp’s Noblessner Homeport project wins in “Best Development Project of 2019” nomination
09:56 Poland's first training centre for port staff opened at the Port of Gdansk
09:33 Brent Crude futures price is down 0.22% to $58.83, Light Sweet Crude – fell by 0.26% to $53.37
09:18 Baltic Dry Index is down to 1,846 points
08:31 MABUX: Bunker Market this morning, Oct 22

2019 October 21

18:25 Navios Acquisition announces $15 mln offering of common stock
18:02 Temasek subsidiary plans to acquire 30.55% of shares in Keppel
17:50 Two LNG-powered Sovcomflot tankers successfully completed voyages along Northern Sea Route
17:36 Anglo-Eastern signs Cyber MOU with Naval Dome
17:13 Guard ship "Yaroslav Mudry" of RF Navy’s Baltic Fleet made business call in Limassol
17:05 Blockchain and DNA-based marine fuels tracking solution BunkerTrace goes live
17:02 Castor Maritime announces vessel acquisition